There are a number of disorders that are particular to the scalp. Symptoms may include:
weeping or bleeding,
clumpy flakes that do not easily slough off the scalp skin,
caking skin buildup that appears white or another color than one''s natural skin tone,
excessive itchiness that doesn''t go away with a few hair wash, redness of scalp skin,
patches of thinning,
clumps of hair falling out,
Any of these symptoms may indicate a need for professional assistance from a dermatologist or trichologist for diagnosis.
Scalp skin can suffer from infestations of mites, lice, infections of the follicles or fungus. There could be allergic reactions to ingredients in chemical preparations applied to the hair, even ingredients from shampoo or conditioners. Common concerns surrounding dandruff (often associated with excessive sebum); psoriasis, eczema, or seborrheic dermatitus.
An odor that persists for a few weeks despite regular hair washing may be an indication of a health problem on the scalp skin.
Photographs over the internet can be difficult to diagnose. Not all flakes are dandruff. For example, some can merely be product buildup on the scalp skin. This could result from the common practice of applying conditioner to scalp skin without washing. This would dry upon the scalp skin and flake off, appearing like dandruff and even causing itchiness, but have no health effects whatsoever.
Although rapid detection and treatment of scalp disease can prevent permanent conditions such as thinning, hair loss, shedding, or death of hair follicles, regular hygiene is still the most effective method of preventing scalp disease.