Acne is a disorder of the sebaceous glands of the skin. Sebaceous glands secrete through pores and hair folliclesÑwhich are most abundant on the face and scalpÑa fatty lubricant known as sebum. Acne occurs when the pores become clogged with sebum. BlackheadsÑexternal plugs formed of sebum and dead cellsÑmay be invaded by bacteria, which cause pus-filled inflammations, or pimples. The overlying skin may become stretched to the point of rupture, resulting in lesions and, in prolonged severe cases, eventual scarring. Adolescents are most prone to acquiring a case of acne.
The exact cause of acne is not known but is believed to be related both to genetic predisposition and to the increased hormonal activity that occurs during puberty. Poor skin hygiene and lack of sunlight or exercise can often aggravate acne. In a reaction comparable to allergy, certain foods may increase irritation in susceptible persons.
A physician may evacuate the contents of blackheads and pimples under aseptic conditions, thus lessening the possibility of scarring. Astringent lotions are sometimes used to counteract the oiliness of the skin, and therapeutic creams are considered useful in releasing blackheads. Antibiotics, particularly tetracycline, are prescribed in more severe cases of acne to reduce infection from bacteria and prevent the appearance of new lesions. Long-term use of antibiotics, however, can result in bacterial resistance.
The appearance of scarred skin may be improved by a surgical procedure called dermabrasion.
Two drugs related to vitamin A, tretinoin (brand name, Retin-A) and isotretinoin (brand name Accutane), have been used in acne treatment. Tretinoin also shows promise as a treatment for smoothing out wrinkled, sun-aged skin, and isotretinoin might deter some forms of skin cancer. Isotretinoin, however, has caused birth defects among pregnant users. Doctors are concerned that the two drugs might cause other harmful side effects. The best way to prevent acne is washing the face regularly thrice a day with soap and water.Creams lotions and powders can be applied in the morning but the face must be cleaned with soap water at night ,so that all the skin pores are open at night,so that oxygen is let into the skin pores for rejevunation.As far as the diet is concerned it is better to avoid fried foods in oil especially.Atleast 1750 to 2000ml of water should be drank everyday.Diet should comprise lots of fresh fruits and preferably raw vegetables, to ensure that there is enough B Complex vitamins and vitamin C
to treat and prevent acne.