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Shvoong Home>Medicine & Health>Dermatology>SKIN-anatomy and physiology Review

SKIN-anatomy and physiology

Book Review   by:sunee     Original Author: suneetha
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DERMATOLOGY Skin is the largest organ of the body, covering and protecting the entire surface of the body. The total surface area of skin is around 3000 sq inches or roughly around 19,355 sq cm depending on age, height, and body size. The skin, along with its derivatives, nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands forms the integumentary system. Besides providing protection to the body the skin has a host of other functions to be performed like regulat­ing body temperature, immune protection, sensations of touch, heat, cold, and pain through the sensory nerve endings, communicating with external openings of numerous other body systems like digestive system, urogenital system, and respiratory system via mucous mem­branes and also one of the most important function of acting as a storage house of energy by collection of adipose tis­sue, which is the principal fat depot in the body. It is the first line of defense of our body against any organism. So, lets now study the physiology and anatomy of skin in detail. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The skin is primarily composed of three layers. The skin, which appears to be so thin, is still itself divided into epider­mis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer or hy­podermis. Please refer to the figure below to understand all the three layers. Each layer has it own function and own importance in maintaining the integrity of skin and thereby the whole body structure. So lets, study each part in detail. 1. Epidermis: Epidermis is the topmost layer or rather the visible part of the skin that is composed of stratified squamous epithelial cells. This layer is com­posed of five layers of cel1s, which are arranged in two zones; the superficial horny layer and a germinal layer beneath it. The horny layer is again made up of three layers of cells. These are stratum corneum , which is the superficial layer. It has thin, flat, dead cells filled with keratin, which are constantly being cast off. Keratin is a very important constituent as it is a type of insoluble fibrous protein that helps to protect the body. This layer helps in protection against heat, chemicals, light, and microorganisms. Below this layer is stra­tum lucidum . This layer contains flat cells with no distinct outline and no nuclei. These cells contain eleidin, which is a retractile and weakly staining keratin present in the cells of the stratum lucidum of the palmar and plantar epidermis, which is a prekeratinous substance. Below this layer is stratum granulosum .
It is a layer of well-defined flat cells, which have their own nucleus and also granules and con­tains a substance called keratohyalin, which later becomes keratin. The next layer of the epidermis is stratum spinosum , which is the first and largest layer of the germinal zone of epidermis. It is made up of prickle cells having prickle-like appearance. The deepest layer of epidermis is stratum basale also known as stratum germinativum. It is a single layer of cuboidal and columnar cells from which new epidermal cells are con­stantly being produced, which later become cells of more superficial layers. These cells divide continuously by mitosis and either push older cells closer to the surface or re­place them.
2. Dermis: The next layer below the epidermis of the skin is called the dermis, which is primarily made up of elastic and fibrous connective tis­sue. This layer is arranged in small papillae, which contain loops of capillary blood vessels. This layer also contains nerve endings of sensory nerves, coiled tubes of sweat glands in deep parts of dermis and sebaceous glands, which produce an oily secretion called as sebum . Ducts fromsweat glands pass through dermis and epidermis as spiral ca­nals and open on the skin as minute depressions, which are called pores. The sweat glands found on the skin are of two types; eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine sweat glands, which are found everywhere in the body, secrete a watery fluid to regulate the body tempera­ture. Apocrine sweat glands are present in certain parts of the body and secrete a milky sweat caused by breakdown of cells by bac­teria. Both types of glands perform an important function of excretion for the body. 3. Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis): The third layer below the dermis is the subcutaneous layer. This layer contains adipose tissue, which is the storage depot for fats. Also called hypodermis, this layer helps in regula­tion of body temperature and provides cushioning to the skin. All the underlying muscles and structures are below the hypodermis
Published: January 22, 2008   
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  1. Answer   Question  :    describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    Pressure sores are usually caused by unrelieved pressure on the skin. They often develop on skin that covers bony areas. Places on the body that are at risk for developing pressure sores include the b View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin breakdown and the developement of pressure sores View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and development of pressure sores View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    describe the anatomy and physiology of healthy skin View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    discribe your companys agreed ways of working relating to pressure care View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    decribe the changes that occur when damage caused by pressure develops View All
  1. Answer   Question  :    identify pressure sites of the body View All
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