Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder of bone so that bone mass decreases. Bone matrix components, namely mineral and protein is reduced. Resorption occurs faster than bone formation, so that bones become thin (Pusdiknakes, 1995).
Osteoporosis is a disorder with a decrease in total bone mass. In
this condition there is a normal homeostatic changes in bone turnover,
rate of bone resorption is greater than the rate of bone formation,
resulting in decreased total bone mass (Brunner & Suddarth, 2000). Thus, osteoporosis is a disorder or a disorder that occurs due to decrease in total bone mass.
This condition leads to widening of the bone marrow and gastrointestinal havers. 'Trabeculae decreases and becomes thin. As a result, easily fractured bones. The bones are easily affected by osteoporosis are vertebrates, temples, and skull.
The bones progressively become pores, brittle, and easily broken. Bones become easier with the stress fracture that will not cause any effect on normal bone. Osteoporosis often results in compression fractures. Multiple vertebral compression fractures resulting in skeletal deforrnitas.
The development of osteoporosis is very complex, including nutritional factors, physical, hormonal, and genetic. Three main factors that influence osteoporosis are:
- Deficiency of calcium. Calcium deficiency can be caused by intake of calcium in the diet is not adequate to accelerate the decline in bone mass. Decreased
calcium have anything to do with age due to reduced absorption of
calcium, inadequate vitamin D intake, or use of certain medications (eg,
corticosteroids for a long time).
- Lack of regular physical exercise. Immobilization can lead to decreased bone mass. Exercise or regular physical exercise can prevent bone loss.
- Gender. Reproductive hormones affect bone strength. In postmenopausal women, reproductive hormones and bone calcium deposits decreased. Hormones
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are greatly decreased in this case is estrogen. Thus, faster women have osteoporosis than men. Women age 45 years show evidence on X-rays of osteoporosis, whereas in men occurs after age 70 years. In
addition to these three things, endocrine gland disorders can cause
osteoporosis that is Chusing disease, thyrotoxicosis, or hypersecretion
of the adrenal glands. Other
risk factors for osteoporosis are less exposed to sunlight, consume
lots of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine, lack of physical activity, or a
family history of osteoporosis.