Vitamin B12, also known as cyanokobalamin, belongs to a group of B vitamins, the most common sources include liver and kidney, fish, eggs or cheese. Vitamin B12 is needed for the formation of cell membrane phospholipids (important for the proper transmission of nerve impulses) and myelin cases (which cover and protect nerve cells and speeds conduction of nerve impulses). Adverse neurological effects of vitamin B12 deficiency are extensive, ranging from isolated symptoms (such as numbness and tingling) to degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, which is associated with neural de-myelination. High doses of vitamin B12 (in particular in the form of CoA) to use in the treatment of certain degenerative processes in multiple sclerosis and diabetic neuropathy.
It should be upzornit that long-term neurological damage caused by vitamin B12 deficiency may be irreversible (irreversible). It is vitally important to ensure sufficient income, especially because the signs of deficiency may not manifest for several years. In its active form koenzymových, and methylkobalamin adenosylcobalamine, B12 is needed for the metabolism of proteins, fats and sugars. Active Vitamin B12 is one of the most effective donor of methyl groups, components necessary for the creation and restoration of the quantity of basic substances in the body, including chemical transmitters in the brain (neurotransmitters) and the amino acid methionine. Recycling of methionine leads to a reduction of destructive homocysteine).
The positive effect of intake of vitamin B12 on mental function and emotional health is determined by its role in the synthesis of fatty acids, impact on the health of nerve cells and the donation of methyl groups. As already mentioned, B12 donating methyl group accelerates the production and recycling of brain transmitters (neurotransmitters) that are responsible for memory, Mental clarity and alertness, mood and other processes). Lack of vitamin B12 cause depression and many symptoms of mental decline (just as manifested Alzheimer's disease). Elevated homocysteine, which can be reduced by supplying vitamin B12 is emerging as a major factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific research conducted on older patients with impaired mental functions due to insufficient intake of vitamin B12 was a need for early detection of deficiency. For example, one study showed that only those who suffered from a lack of less than 1 year may feel improvement in vitamin B12 supplementation. DNA replication and thus good separation of cells is also dependent on vitamin B12. Role of vitamin B12 in DNA replication is particularly important in the production of healthy red blood cells (carries oxygen throughout the body) and hemoglobin. Without sufficient vitamin B12 and red blood cells increase sufficiently mature, resulting in a potentially dangerous condition called pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia (Anemia).
The main risk factor for development atherosclerosis, The primary fault in the creation vascular disease and the heart is also increased homocysteine. B12, together with folic acid (Also the donor of methyl groups) and vitamin B6 may help protect blood vessel walls of capillaries by accelerating the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine (B12 and folic acid) and metabolizováním cystathioonin and homocysteine to cysteine (B6). There is no known toxicity of benefits located in dietary supplements. High doses of any single B vitamin may cause deficiency of other B vitamins, so at higher doses recommended for supplementation with multivitamin or B-complex.