Since the late half of Ming Dynasty, the personages in Jiangnan had set up some sort of transcendent consciousness, and (began) to get free from the superstition of and adherence to political right. Most of the personages didn′t carefully study the classics of Confucius and make for official career, what they thought as fashion and very important deeds are literary grace and the traveling with harlots. When we ask for the answer why they did that way, it′s mainly related to the (prosperity) of (merchandise) economy and the (flourishing) of burgher class. The businessman culture of Jiangnan in late Ming Dynasty couldn′t even be (separated) from the (personage) (culture) and the one of literary women. The (businessman) culture greatly (promoted) the (flourishing) of the (personage) (culture) and the (brothel) (culture). (Harlots) are all over the (country) in the period of Wanli. (There) were (quantities) of (brothels) in Suzhou, (Yangzhou), (Shengze), (Songjiang) and (Hangzhou,) etc. Qin and Huai were the places with most brothels where many literary (womenresided). Those (literary) women were called ″famous harlots″ because of their common (characteristics) of the (excellence) in (literature), looks and arts.
(They were) (outstanding) and good at playing musical (instrument), chess, pen craft and drawing, and their literary achievement were in no way inferior to men. They were also (chivalrous) and knowledgeable. During the period when Qing had been taking the place of (Ming,) they cared about the destiny of their country and advocated fidelity inspiring awe by upholding justice. The famous harlots in Qin and Huai were born in the troubled times when Ming was giving its place to Qing and the society was undertaking great changes (which) (made) everything shattered. In the troubled time appeared beauties as well as heroes. Most of the destinies of theirs are tragic. The destinies of the harlots were mostly connected with those of the personages. The representatives were LI Xiang-jun, BIAN Yu-jing and DONG Xiao-wan.