In the context of the modern transition of the knowledge system of national culture, the criticism text on the modern Chinese historical drama in the 20th century advocates the use of "modern drama" by playwrights and points out that historical drama should look at history in modern sense and through typical artistic techniques grasp the historical authenticity beneath the historical surface. However, the realistic needs and others have often led people to deem the historical authenticity monism, which has objectively restricted the pluralistic pattern of the development of modern historical drama. At the same time, although people are positive that the creation of modern historical drama can reveal the historical authenticity, the issue as to whether the authenticity belongs to the historical category or artistic category caused an extensive debate. From the narrative angle, however, the nonfiction of the historical text hinges on the historical events. Similarly, the historical literary works are also based on them. Because of the similarity there is in such narration, the historical literary works have been confused with the historical texts for a considerably long time, especially in terms of the Han nationality that sets store by history. Since the wellknown historian Sima Qian created the narrative style of historical biographies, it has become one and the only way for all literary and artistic creation in the eyes of many. This national cultural psychology has more or less influenced the criticism on the modern Chinese historical drama in the 20th century. That the historical authenticity is far more important than the artistic fiction has remained an important principle of the criticism on the creation of modern historical drama.
In fact, the creation of historical literary works should be based on the three dimensions of aesthetic narration, aesthetic knowledge, and aesthetic ideology respectively. The first dimension refers to all possible artistic means to be used in writing a text, including narrative style, narrative structure and narrative aesthetic ideology. The second dimension in historical literary works mainly refers to the choice of the interpretative practices of historical materials - notably antiquarianism and existential historicism up to date. The first two dimensions depend on the third dimension. So, the writer's choice as to aesthetic narration and aesthetic knowledge is a reflection of his belief, values, and experience, which are concretized through his artistic creation. During the modern Chinese culture movement, historical drama embodied the new change in aesthetic ideology through the new change of aesthetic narration and aesthetic knowledge. In the time that there was a radical change of different ideologies as in the traditional and the modern, and the western and the eastern, and survival or peril of the Chinese nation, it was impossible that historical drama could exist beyond the cultural transition and remain inside an ivory tower. Instead, It must embody the modernism in its aesthetic narration and aesthetic knowledge, through which is clearly reflected the pursuit of aesthetic ideology.