ubject which is death penalty is extensive and awake many emotions now. This essay will be about death penalty in civilization definite as “western” (however it is omit events of wars and particularly wars judgment). It is because it is esteem as the most developed and this sort of punishment is in it very controversial. Many people think over that this sort of penalty have a sense yet. Others are its fierce adversary. Another esteem that it should exist. All have their rights, which are often contradictory but sometimes are also equally good.
It is because is many of points of view at this question: ethical, social, lawful, economical….
At first it is good take up connection between evolution of civilization and death penalty. By now every kind of people organization had this sort of punishment. As we know bigger group of people must organized themselves that survive. It is how come into being law and religions.
Religions are consist an most part with ethic “which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy”* Practically all beliefs are against death penalty. Its permit it only in necessary defence.
“Western” civilization and particularly law in big part come from ancients Romans so it is good to remember one Latin sentence “ubi lex ubi poena”(where is a law there is also a punishment).Also death penalty- very cruel as we now from historical documents. But this fact didn’t change opinion that ancient Roman culture was great. Hoverer themselves people warn “It is better do not punish one guilty person that punish one innocent person”*
Now among countries rank in “western civilization” only in USA have a law which permit on death penalty. It is perceive as a little strange, because it is consider as one of most progressive and rich country. That surprise reveal this quotation from “AI death row”: “An AIUSA member told me ‘ If 20 years ago somebody had asked me –of south Africa, Soviet Union and USA, which country would be last to abolish the death penalty, I would never have thought it would be USA’”.*
“Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 36 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government(..)The death penalty has repeatedly been challenged as being a cruel and unusual punishment and thus unconstitutional under the eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. "The United States is one of the few democracies in the world that maintains the death penalty for particularly serious crimes; whether it should maintain it has been a matter of practical, moral, and constitutional debate" (from American Justice Volume 1).” Protagonists add: “death penalty is that it gives a victim''s relatives and friends closure. The victim''s family has peace of mind when they know the killer can never murder again.”*
However it no contribute to decrease significant of amounts of crimes. That is proven by sociological examination –“A 1988 UN study of the relations between the death penalty and homicide rates concluded that “This research has failed to provide scientific proof is unlikely to be forthcoming. The evidence as a whole still gives no positive support to the determent hypothesis. The study reviewed evidence from around the world on changes in the use of death penalty and crime rates. The evidence showed that countries need no fear sudden and serious changes in the curve of crime if they reduce their reliance on the death penalty”
The death penalty was abolished in Canada in 1976. The previous year, 1975, there was 701 homicides, in 1984 there was 668. In 1993, 17 years after the abolition, the homicide rate was 27 per cent lower than 1975”.*
At fourth is economical issue. That is argument which is often use by followers of death penalty. They claim that” the death penalty is economical. According to the Huntsville Death Rot cost $59 a day to house an inmate, or $21,535 a year. There are numerous programs that depend on America''s tax dollars where the funds could be better spent”*
That is also why are change methods of execution. In past hanging was the most common method. “The last person to be hung in chains was a murderer named John Marshall in West Virginia on April 4, 1913.
Currently lethal injection is the method used or allowed in 37 of the 38 states which allow the death penalty and by the federal government. Nebraska requires electrocution. Other states also allow electrocution, gas chambers, hanging and the firing squad. From 1976 to 2004, out of 944 executions: 776 have been by lethal injection, 153 by electrocution, 11 by gas chamber, 3 by hanging, and 2 by firing squad.
The use of lethal injection has become standard. From 2001, only 3 out of 273 executions have been by a different method.(…)
The electric chair was the major method of execution during most of the 20th century. They developed a special nickname: Old Sparky. Some, particularly in Florida, were noted for malfunctions, which caused discussion of their cruelty and resulted in a shift to lethal injection as the major method of execution.”*
On the other hand words of one of opponents of this sorts of punishment express their opinion “from hanging to electric chair to lethal injection: how much prettier can you make it?