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Water and Its problems
countries, the use of water is increasing day by day mainly due to the rise in
the standard of living of the people, the application of more intensive farming
practices and the establishment of myriad of industries.
Although the people’s water needs in
the United States are great, they do not begin to compare with the millions of
people in Asia, India, Africa and South America who must still scoop up water
from shallow pools or foul streams or haul it up by hand from wells. In mostleast
developed countries, women should have to cover a long distance to bring a pitcher
of water. In Madagascar, women carry water in Jars on their heads across miles
of hot sands.
To meet the growing demand of water,
it has become customary for the people of different countries to store water
indifferent ways. For example, in parts of the Egyptian Sudan, water is stored
in the thousands of trunks of large hollow trees. They act as small reservoirs
which hold 300 to 1000 gallons each. In one province, the trees are registered
and the contents noted for information on the extent of the water resources.
In most countries, the impact of
growth in population and industries has not been given proper attention. This
is why many critical water shortages have occurred that could have been
forestalled. Rural electrification, for instance, has brought about such
increases that the limited well-water supplies of many farms have been
severally strained. Likewise, in many countries, factories have been
established without prior studies to determine whether water would be available
to operate the factories and to provide for the communities around them.
Today, cities, towns, industries and
farms have been expanding beyond the safe limits of available water. Often
temporary efforts have been made to meet emergencies, especially in years of
low rainfall. Such endeavors have often hastened the depletion of the limited
reserves in underground reserves, generated disputes with other cities or industries
drawing on the same sources of water, introduced conflicts with the use of
water for recreation and threatened the permanent flooding of lands valuable
for farming, forestry, wilderness or wildlife. To meet the existing water
needs, adequate thought should be given to the advance planning of storage
reservoirs, canals, methods of recharging ground water, reclamation of waste
water and other devices.