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Shvoong Home>Social Sciences>The SARMATIANS Summary

The SARMATIANS

Article Summary   by:Naiman     Original Author: Gumilev
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The SARMATIANS A people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains between the 6th and 4th century BCE and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia and the eastern Balkans. Like the Scythians to whom they were closely related, the Sarmatians were highly developed in horsemanship and warfare. Their administrative capability and political astuteness contributed to their gaining widespread influence. By the 5th century BCE the Sarmatians held control of the land between the Urals and the Don River. In the 4th century they crossed the Don and conquered the Scythians, replacing them as rulers of almost all of southern Russia by the 2nd century. Sarmatia perished when hordes of Huns migrated after AD 370 into southern Russia. Those surviving became assimilated or escaped to the West to fight the Huns and the last of the Goths. By the 6th century their descendants had disappeared from the historical record. The Sarmatians never formed a single unified polity; rather they were divided into numerous tribes, the most important of which were: ALANS (ALANOI) The Alans, from whom the modern Ossetians claim descent, were a branch of the Sarmatians descended from a mélange of peoples, including Eastern tribes such as the Massagetae. The name Alan is thought to be derived from the same route as “Iran” and “Aryan” (indeed, the Ossetian self-designation is “Iron”) Some Alan tribes went west during the 300's CE and joined the Visigoths and Vandals in Spain and North Africa. The majority remained in the Caucasus region, around the Darial Pass. Their capital was Maghas (destroyed by the Golden Horde in 1339) and at various times they controlled the port city of Phasis, now in Georgia. Their kings had the title of Kundaj. RUKHS-AS Kuluk..............................................mid 1st century CE ?? Askhkadar.........................................late 280's Boz-Uruz...........................................fl. late 300's To the Goths................................late 300's-390's To the Huns...................................c. 390's-460 Balambar......................................fl. 370's followed by... Alatey and... Safrak Saros.........................................fl. 5th cent. Kandak........................................fl. c. 450 ?? Alanui K'an (a title rather than a proper name ?)..fl. c. 600 ?? To the Khazars...................................700's-800's Itaz..........................................fl. c. 715 Rebel king (unnamed in sources)........................c.920 To the Khazars..................................c. 920-950 Durgulel the Great..........................late 900's-early 1000's ?? Yasynya............................................fl. c. 1100 Aton Bagratuni.....................................fl. c. 1125 Huddan.............................................fl. mid 1100's Suarn..............................................fl. late 1100's David Soslan.......................................fl. c. 1189 Vladislav..........................................fl. c. 1200 ? To the Mongols....................................1222-1239 To Golden Horde...................................1239-late 1300's Khankhusy (client king?)......................fl. mid 1200's The Alan kingdom lasted, through various periods of vassalage, until the 1400's, when it was destroyed by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane). Thereafter the Ossetians broke up into tribes and factions which were usually under Russian, Kabardian, Circassian or Georgian domination. To Timur.......................................c. 1400-1405 Generally within Kabarda chronology...............1405-1918 To Transcaucasian Republic........................1918-1919 To Anti-Communist forces..........................1919-1920 To Soviet Union...................................1920-1991 North Ossetia, largely populated by Muslims and also called Alwithin the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic in 1924, and an autonomous republic in 1936.
South Ossetia, largely Orthodox, was made an autonomous region within Georgia, but lost its status in 1990, sparking a civil war between nationalist and pro-Georgian forces. Autonomy was re-established in 1992, and peace was officially declared in 1996. Ossetian revolution...............................1990-1996 opposing... To Russia (North Ossetian Autonomous Republic)....1991-  and... To Georgia (South Ossetia)........................1991- Ossetian nationalists continue to agitate for a unified, independent Ossetian state, or at very least a unification of North and South Ossetia within the Russian Federation. The following are some of the Alan rulers who migrated west with the Goths, making their homes in Gaul, Iberia and North Africa. At various times they were allies and enemies of the Romans and were eventually absorbed into the Visigoths, Vandals, and other Germanic peoples (Sangipan, for example, fought alongside Ætius and Theodoric against Attila the Hun, at the Battle of Chalons). Note that most of the Alans who migrated west ended up acknowleging the Vandal kings as their rulers by the late 400's. Gaiseric took the title "King of the Vandals and Alans" and subsequent kings kept that title until they were defeated by Byzantium. Beler.........................................fl. late 300's ? Respendial......................................fl. c. 410 Attaces............................................ ? -426 Goar (Gokhar).............................fl. c. 430's-450's CE Sangipan........................................fl. c. 453 Beorgor.............................................d. 464 CE AORSI The easternmost of the Sarmatian nations, inhabiting the region around the lower Volga River and as far east as the Aral Sea. There may have been two Aorsi nations, one in the north and one in the south. The Chinese knew the Aorsi as “Yen-Ts’ai”. Spadines (Shpadana).............................fl. 60's BCE Defeated by the Romans 49 CE; absorbed by other Sarmatian nations by 200 CE. “FREE SARMATIANS” A coalition of minor tribes who raided across the Danube into Roman territory during the mid-300's CE. Zizais, with... Rumo, and... Zinafer, and... Fragiledus To the Romans from c.350 IAZYGES One of the westernmost tribal groupings, inhabting Moldavia and eventually pushing their way into Thrace, northern Dacia, and Pannonia. The Iazyges were the nation with which the Romans had the most contact. Zanticus........................................fl. late 100's CE Zanticus was defeated by Marcus Aurelius in 174 CE; as part of the settlement 8000 Sarmatian horsemen went over to the Romans as hostages. They were settled as federate troups as far away as Britain and Gaul, where they introduced heavy cavalry and the use of coordinated lancer charges. They may have become the inspiration for the legends of King Arthur’s knights. Beuca........................................... ? -470/1 with... Babay (in Pannonia)............................. ? -470/1
Published: March 28, 2007   
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  1. 1. Korab

    Sarmatian Vandals

    Can you please elaborate on Sarmatian Vandals when they devastated France with Prince Krok in the 5th century and overran many port cities. Also, do you have any historical facts concerning Slavic Huns [sic] that attacked Thrace, at the river Danube?

    0 Rating Sunday, February 28, 2010
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