In Macroeconomic learned about the economic system of a State. Each country adopted an economic system to manage and allocate economic resources to the results for the welfare of its people. There are embracing centralized economic system, and anyone running a market economy system.
Centralized economic system, or commonly referred to as a planned economic system is the economic system that emphasizes the values set by Government, so that the Government was instrumental in determining the direction and economic policy. Government plays an important role in regulating the conditions in the country.
Communism and Socialism is a system of centralized economic system that is still run by the State and the socialist-communist countries such as Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, and China. This socialist system as a form of opposition to liberal economic system developed by European countries in the early 19th century. The economic system karenan it is often also referred to as the anti-liberalist system.
In the development of economic globalization, more and more countries are opening up so that the country''s economic system is affected by the economies of other countries, even influenced by the world economy or market economy. Then the system perekonmian such systems are often called market economy.
In such circumstances the Government handed over the economic mechanisms at the individual economic actors, so they are given the authority and discretion in conducting all business activities. Because economic activity is carried out by individuals / private, so that the system is in addition to economy is called the market economy system, also called the system of private economy, or economic system price. Because there is very decisive and make the price of reference by the sellers and buyers.
Is Adam Smith, the man who pioneered the market economy system which is based on the recognition of private property rights and the freedom to conduct transactions. With such a mechanism would take into account the economic actors themselves how much overhead, cost and benefit, and the margin will be obtained a certain price level comparisons. There is a kind of regulator / controller that does not appear in its business in order to obtain the highest profits at the expense proportionately.
For that price becomes a very important role because as a measuring tool and instrument of communion between the seller and buyer kasi. Even the price to be coordinated to take into account the advantages of each individual activity. Basically, the price reflects the value of goods or services produced by the company and able to be paid by the buyer.
Prices also can be a tool automatically control the market, even without government interference. Because prices are determined by the manufacturer in order to obtain maximum benefit, while buyers can not afford so that buyers switch to another product instead. With the increasing number of consumers who thought better of buying goods / services, then the manufacturers were forced to stop production or reduce prices. With the cessation of production or a decrease in the price of the goods / services is increasingly scarce as more and more consumers are looking for or need. Because many in need, then the price is raised and propagated production. Because of high prices, then buyers switch consumption, and so on.
In a market economy system, economic actors can be simplified into domestic economic actors (households) and economic actors company (firm). Domestic economic agents spend for goods and services for consumption and investment. Consumption is the use of goods / services for current consumption. While the investment is for long-term beneficiaries of goods and its value is relatively flat or even rise.
Domestic economic agents spend the goods / services to achieve the satisfaction of needs they have. Consumer satisfaction can be measured by how many of the problems encountered can be solved. The point is how the buyer / consumer needs can be satisfied by goods / services they buy. While companies try to make profits as high as with the attempt to give satisfaction to the consumer. The maximum profit the company can be achieved if additional revenue (marginal revenue = MR) is higher than the additional cost of production (marginal cost = MC).
In addition to centralized economic system and market economy system, there are also state that embraces mixed economy system. Economic Yaknipelaku individuals are given greater freedom in conducting business, but the Government still intervene in order menghindarimonopoli and oligopoly. It seems now there is no more extreme that the State implement a centralized economic system. They tend to lead to a market economy with a fixed system of government interference. So to say that most countries use mixed systems. Especially with the current global economic system they form a free trade groups such as AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area), ACFTA (ASEAN-China Free Trade Area), EFTA (European Free Trade Area), NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), and so on.