Since the curriculum is concerned with a general rationale for formulating policy decisions, it combines educational-cultural goals with language goals. For example, an overall educational approach could focus on one of the following major views: (a). a behavioristic orientation, (b). a rational-cognitive orientation, and (c). a humanistic orientation.
a. Behavioristic orientation considers the human species to be a passive organism, reacting to external, environmental stimuli,
b. Rational-Cognitive orientation considers the human species to be the source and initiator of all acts, and
c. Humanistic orientation is concerned with each individual’s growth and development, while emphasizing affective factors as well.
Generally, an educational orientation is compatible with one or more linguistic and language learning theories. Thus, the behavioristic view is an educational-psychological philosophy which is compatible with a structuralist view of language and a stimulus-response view about human language learning.
There are three basic orientations of curriculum, one concerning with the theory of language, one concerning with the language learning theory, and one concerning pedagogical aspects. All these factors can be reflected partially or fully in a wide variety of language learning approach.