Mohandas karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October, 1869 at Porbunder in Gujarat. He was called Mahatma Gandhi because of his kind nature and simple life. After his schooling he went to England to study low. He started his practice in Mumbai. He then went to South Africa. There he was shocked to see the plight of the Indians and the blacks. The blacks and the Indians were treaded as untouchables by the whites. He stayed there for 21 years to fight against this injustice.
Gandhi came back to India in 1914. He became very sad to see the poor condition of Indians under British rule. He asked people to rise against the injustice and raise their voice against the British. This struggle too was based on truth and non- violence. He told people to disobey the British laws. This was called the non- cooperation movement. Thousands of people actively participated in Satagrah.
This period was the last step freedom struggle. The people were united under the leader ship of Mahatma Gandhi and fought for their freedom by peaceful means.
After spending 20 years in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi came back to India in 1915. He wanted to learn more about India and its people. So he toured India to see for himself the condition of the people here.
He observed that most people in India were very poor and suppressed by the British government. Social evils like the caste system kept the people divided.
He was sacrificed his life for poor people.
People of low cast and untouchables were treated badly. There was disunity among the people. Women were backward and enjoyed no rights. The farmers and laborers in factories were not treated well.
After looking at all these painful things, Gandhi decided to start his fight on two fronts- social front and the political front.
In the social front, he decided to fight the evils that were prevalent in the society. He worked hard for the upliftment of women.
On the political front, he decided to join and strengthen the freedom movement.
Gandhi started the Satagrah based on truth and non- violence in South Africa. India also, it became his most important weapon against the British.
Many rules and regulations were passed during the World War I to suppress the extremists’ activities. These laws were made to make away the liberty of people. ` Rowlatt act’ was one such act which was passed in 1919. According to this law, British could imprison any person with out a trail in the court. There was no scope for appeal. People were not allowed to express their views. All the important powers remained with the government who was not responsible for Indian people.
However, people kept hoping that with the end of the war, the laws would be withdrawn. So they showed great patience. But when the war was over more harsh lows were imposed on them. This was the time when Gandhi asked the people to protest against such unjust and cruel laws. Demonstrations, strike and house meeting were held all over the country.