For a long, long time,
psychology was the study of the soul (in fact psique means soul) behaviorism
represents one of the biggest turns in the subject of study, since it only take
as valid observable data: emotional behavior, habitual behavior, learning
behavior, and so on.
Behaviorism proposes the use
of experimental procedures for the observation of responses related to stimuli.
The numerous behaviorists studies had given useful information concerning
behavior modification, behavior therapy, teaching methods, and the effect of
drugs in the behavior.
Operant conditioning aim is
to achieve a higher odd of a given behavior to occur skinner used it in animals
and hoped it will have the same results on humans using the model of
Reinforcement, and Extinction
Simple contracts can be effective in helping children
focus on behavior change. The relevant behavior should be identified, and the
child and counselor should decide the terms of the contract. Behavioral
contracts can be used in school as well as at home. It is helpful if teachers
and parents work together with the student to ensure that the contract is being
fulfilled. An example is:
A student is not doing his homework, so the student
and the teacher design a contract saying the student will stay for extra help
(with the permission of the parents) so the teacher is available for help after
school and the student deliver the homework on time
Must take place immediately after a behavior. Reinforcement
may be positive or negative, expected or unexpected, extrinsic or intrinsic,
material or symbolic (a failing grade), emotional/interpersonal or even
They occur after the "target" behavior
occurs, when either positive or negative reinforcement may be given.
It is the presentation of a reinforcement that
increases the probability of a response. This type of reinforcement
occurs frequently in the classroom. Teachers may provide positive
reinforcement by smiling, selecting them for special projects, pricing
abilities to student parents, and so on.
It increases the probability for a behavior to stop. Negative implies removing
a consequence that a student finds unpleasant. It can be; obtaining over 90%
makes final exam optional, delivering the assignments on time upper final
Involves something the student really doesn’t like and the effectiveness
of punishment is quite questionable, because, the results are unpredictable.
It decreases the probability of a response by removing
previously reinforced stimuli. Examples of extinction:: A student, when
reading out aloud, says the punctuation marks, to play funny, and his
classmates laugh reinforcing the behavior, if you tell tem to stop, the
behavior will be forgotten.