Aristotle was born in 384 p.n.l. in Stageire, Ionian colony on the peninsula of Chalkidiki. His father was a doctor at the Macedonian royal court. Aristotle very young and orphaned 18-year-old relatives sent him to study medicine in Athens. However, there entered Plato's Academy, where he spent 20 years of his life. Mastered a wealth of knowledge and over time it becomes a teacher. Lectured on rhetoric.
After Plato's death he went to maloázijského Assos, where he founded his school and concentrated mainly on science exploration. In 343 p.n.l. Macedonian Philip invited Aristotle to his royal court, to train his son, the future Alexander the Great. After taking the throne, Alexander was Aristotle returned to Athens where he founded a philosophical school Lykeion, which was renamed peripatetická school.
After the death of Alexander of Macedonia in Athens began to lift protimacedónska political wave and Aristotle felt for his contacts with the world at risk. Accuse him of impiety (supposedly standing statue of Hermes is introducing a new cult) and "the Athenians did not give the option a second time offenders to philosophy, went to the island of Evia Halkida, on his mother's property, where he died after a few months.
Aristotle was more logic, a pragmatist and empiricist as Plato. The essence of his teaching is also idealistic, but is materiálnejší as Plato. His work is unusually large. Preserving only 47 titles from its 170 works, which largely is not a finished book, but the Aristotelian lecture notes. His work is intended mainly for lecturing in school, so we do not find them in dialogue. His works can be divided into five areas according to its content or object. These are logical writings (6 works under a common name Organon - Instrument), science (eg Physics), metaphysical (the most basic and most abstract writings on '. First philosophy under the common name Metaphysics), political, ethical and aesthetic (6 files, eg. Nicomachean Ethics) and psychological (eg, O soul / De anima). Aristotle divided the theoretical philosophy (mathematics, physics and metaphysics), practical (ethics, politics, economics) and the poetic / poietické sciences, who study everything that touches on the principles of construction of a literary work.