Large area which is covered by sand is called a desert. The Great Indian Desert is also called Thar Desert or the western desert. It is situated to the west of Aravali mountain range. Most of the Rajasthan and part of Harayana are covered by this desert. The total area of this desert is two lakh square kilometers. It contains many minerals like gypsum, limestone, lignite, salt and natural gas which are to be exploited.
In deserts water is found at a few places. Rainfall will be very low in this region. When the rain water or the under ground water comes up water pools are formed such places are called oases, people live around oases and crops are grown. One such oasis is at Jai Salmeer. The Sambhar lake of Rajasthan is the largest salt water lake in India.
Due to lack of rainfall and high temperature there is dry climate. Only thorny shrubs and cactus and date palms can be seen in few areas. The people of this region have to face great difficulties for food and water.
It is not possible to provide either roadways or a railway here; that is why the people depend upon camel to travel in this desert. The camel is called ``Ship of the Desert’’. Camels can move easily in the desert long distance due to their padded feet and can travel even with out food and water for few days.
The government is putting more efforts to change the fate of the desert, by constructing the Indira Gandhi canal of about 989 kilometers long from the Sutlej River. Due to this, desert is being changed into fertile land at Suratgarh.
Further we have to concentrate over increasing of green cover by planting trees, shrubs and grass, so that we can make the soil fertile and climate good in order to make our lives prosperous.