Some winds blow in one direction at a particular time or during a particular season and in the opposite direction at another time or season. Such winds are called periodical winds.
Monsoon is periodical winds which blow from sea to land for six months in summer and from land to sea for six months in winter. The monsoon region lies in between 8 degree 30 degree of latitude on both sides of the equator. It covers south-east Asia, parts of Australia, Africa and America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, south china and the Philippines. North Australia, Central America, West Indies, eastern Brazil, and Mozambique lie in this region.
For people living in India and south-east Asia, the monsoon is the life giving rain. In summer the monsoon winds blow from the sea and bring heavy rains, but in winter these winds blow from the land and so are dry. As these lands are near to the equator the temperature is high throughout the year. So the climate of this region is hot and most in summer and warm and dry in winter. As region receives rain in summer, it is also known as the region of summer rainfall.
This region enjoy only three seasons: summer, from March to May, rainy season from June to September, winter from October to February.
Due to great heat and good rainfall in summer, forests grow in this region. Forests differ from place to place; evergreen forests grow in areas that receive heavy rainfall. Areas receiving rainfall more than 100cms but than 200cms give rise to monsoon forests. Monsoon forests shed their leaves in summer, so these forests are also called deciduous forests. Most of these forests have been cleared. Dry forests grow in areas which receive 50cms to 100cms rainfall while areas receiving rainfall less than 50cms grow prickly shrubs and thorny bushes.
The fertile soil, adequate rainfall, high temperature and long growing seasons of this region help people to grow many crops,. In heavy rainfall receiving areas people grow rice, maize, cotton, sugar cane, oilseeds, tobacco, etc coconut trees grow in coastal areas. In dry areas people grow millets and cotton. In other areas people mainly grow wheat, barley, tea and coffee.
Cattle, sheep and goats are reached in this region. Monkeys, peacocks, tigers, leopards, bears, deer, snakes etc. are found in this region. Elephant are found in Assam, Myanmar and Thailand. Rhinoceros live in the forests of Assam. Crocodiles are found in the rivers of this region. This region is the most densely populated in the world. One third of world’s population lives here. The chief occupation of the people is agriculture. Many industries came up in this region.