The concept of exclusion, by Bruto da Costa (1998), is the phase of the evelopment of extreme marginalization.This presents itself in a downward direction along this route and there are cracks between the individual and society, in terms of relationships and social interactions.
The absence or break from the labor market (unemployment) plays a major role since, primarily affects the structure, conditions and family relations, and a second stage also affects social relations.
The Social Exclusion can be driven by several factors, individual or groups, which are triggered when an individual lacks the resources or skills to access a set of basic social systems (Costa, 1998): The social, economic, and the Institutional; of the territorial and symbolic references.
a) Social: This area encompasses a set of "systems" (Costa, 1998), namely the groups, communities and social networks where the individual is inserted, a first level to cover the family or neighborhood, a second level involves the friends, sports and cultural associations or a third level and a broader sense, involving the local
community, and labor market policy (Costa, 1998).
b) Economic: the economic field are systems that act as sources of resources, including the labor market, according to the salary that he receives, the social security system, through pensions, allowances, etc.., and the "assets" (Costa, 1998, p.15).
c) Institutional: This area covers two types of systems, including on one hand the educational systems, health, justice and possibly housing (Costa, 1998), on the other hand covers institutions directly related to civil and political rights.
d) Territorial: This system is directly related to the fact that there are situations in which social exclusion relates to the whole territory and not just one individual or one family (Costa, 1998). As an example the author highlights the slums where the
living conditions of families are unlikely to change if there is an investment that aims to boost the progress of space (neighborhood), the level of housing, accessibility, social facilities and economic activities (Costa, 1998).
e) References symbolic: this domain is related primarily to a "subjective dimension of exclusion" (Costa, 1998, p.17). That is, with respect to a set of losses, including loss of social identity, self-esteem, initiative, motivation and sense of belonging.
Social Exclusion is a complex phenomenon and dissimilar, and can be divided or sub-target in several types of exclusion, as the causes that motivate, like economic, social type, type culture; of pathological origin, or by self-destructive behaviors.
a) exclusion from an economic: it is a "poverty", understood as a withdrawal (or lack) of access to resources. This type of exclusion may be characterized by poor living conditions, which may be related to precarious employment, low levels of
education and / or professional qualification. When this type of exclusion (economic), or "poverty" for a long duration may have an impact on psychological, social and individual behavior.
b) exclusion of a social nature: in this case, the very cause of exclusion focus is on interactions and social ties, leading to a deprivation of the relational type that causes isolation. The author presents as examples the seniors who live in solitude, without support the disabled, chronically ill and / or bedridden, although they need
care, they may be denied. This is an exclusion that may not have implied a lack of resources, but to be a consequence of the lifestyle of family and / or friends, lack of welfare services, or an individualistic culture. However, this type of exclusion may also be related to lack of resources, and if this is the case, we have a situation of social exclusion overlaps the exclusion by economic factors or even due to this (Costa, 1998).
c) Exclusion of cultural, phenomena such as racism, xenophobia, and certain forms of nationalism can, by itself, boost the social exclusion of ethnic-cultural minorities. In this sense, these behaviors originate from a type of Cultural Exclusion.
d) Exclusion of pathological origin: Costa (1998) proposes a kind of causes that can be allocated to social exclusion, the pathological factors, namely the mental or psychological origin. These may cause disruptions in terms of family pathology, or the result of these.
e) Exclusion of self-destructive behaviors: Some individuals live in social exclusion (or self-exclusion) as propellants having self-destructive behaviors. According to Costa (1998), these are behaviors related to situations of drug ddiction, prostitution, alcoholism, etc.. All these situations can be closely linked to a poverty that can be both a cause and a consequence. Also this type of exclusion may be superimposed on another.
Reference: Costa, Alfredo Bruto.1998. Exclusões Sociais. Edições Gradiva.