HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET ISAIAH
Of beginning I present the name of the prophet Isaiah and its meaning, Isaiah (Whyesy), in Hebrew, its meaning is “Yahweh is salvation”, or can be “Yahweh gave salvation”, then it is understood as “salvation of Yahweh”.
This name in the Hebrew culture is of meaning important for taking the interpretation of the facts and of the current situation, the agreement can be had of that it opens space in the knowledge to understand the state or the present situation. I make a bridge that of the sensible Real to the name of the prophet Isaiah according to Ridderbos (1986, P. 9) “Perhaps the parents of Isaiah had given this name to it to express its gratitude for the blessing tried for occasion of the birth of its son”. This commentary does not have evidences traditional intern and, not even for this reason the name of this insigne prophet leaves to lose its important paper in history, therefore the focus of the book is to show to the rescuer promoting the only objective of salvation for its people.
The prologue of the book (cf. Is. 1.1) he presents the filiation of this personage soon as if to see “Isaiah, son of amoz” (not it amoz, the cattle prophet), does not have nothing more than these information, does not say more nothing on its father, its first years of life and etc. in the affirmation of Champlin (2001, P. 2779) it is said that the prophet was descending of sacerdotal family, as to see itself in it I capitulate six, one verses the eight of the book. The rabínica tradition soon identifies as integrant or member to it of the royalty of Judá. The argument of Ridderbos (1986, P. 9) it affirms that “the rabínica tradition of that Amoz, father of Isaiah, were brother of king Amassias, do not have adjusted confirmation, age of noble descent and had influence in the real cut”. Sabe that Dos Reis of Judá lived in the cut. It has indications perhaps of that it was prime of Uzias. Scribe and reporter of historical annals of the davídica house, had preeminence and freedom enough to transit next to the power politician and to take knowledge, browse-quality, of the politics and strategies of the State Jewish monarch. Scholar, politically privileged cult and, can have be part of the chaste sacerdotal of Jerusalem. It augured during the reigns of Uzias, Jotão, Ezequias, and probably during its last eight years of life, under the malignant oppression of the reign of Manassés, responsible for its martyrdom, according to rabínica tradition, when with 92 years of age.
The prophet Isaiah, would have lived between 740 B.C. e 681 B.C., during the reigns of Uzias, Jotão, Acaz and Ezequias, being contemporary to the destruction of Samaria for the Assyrian and to the resistance of Jerusalem to the wall of the troops of Senaqueribe that besieged the city with an army of 185 a thousand Assyrians in 701 B.C.
it exerted its ministry in the kingdom of Judá, having if married with a known wife as the prophetess who was mother of two children: Sear-Jasube and Maer-Salal-Have.
Chapter 6 of the book informs on the call of Isaiah for tilts prophet through a vision of the throne of God in the temple, folloied for serafins, where one of these angelicais beings would have flied until it bringing alive live coals of the altar to purificar its lips in order to purificar it of its sin. Then, after this, Isaiah hears a voice of God determining that he took to the people its message.
It can be affirmed that Isaiah is the prophet who more speaks on the coming of the Messias, describing it at the same time as a sofredor servant who would die for the sins of the humanity and as a sovereign prince who will govern with justice. Therefore, one of the chapters marcantes of the book would be of number 53 that it mentions the martyrdom that waited the Messias: “But it was wounded by ours, trespasses and worn out for the nosas iniquities; the punishment that in them brings the peace was on it, and, by its pisaduras, we were sarados ". (Is 53:5) Isaiah describes the land as to circulate (Is 40:22), what he generated modern interpretations on the meaning. However, a circle is not a sphere. the catholics believed that the land was flattened, of round format. In accordance with the Jewish tradition, Isaiah would have been died sawed to the way at the time it king Manassés.
BIBLE OF the MINISTER, New International Version; translation: Commission of Translation of International the Biblical Society. São Paulo: Publishing company: Life, 2002.
STUDY BIBLE THOMPSON; translation: João Blacksmith of Almeida. São Paulo: Publishing company: Life, 1999.
BIBLE OF STUDY PENTECOSTAL, translation: Donald C. Stamps. São Paulo: Publishing company: CPAD, 1995.
CHAMPLIN, Russell Norman. The Old interpreted Will, versicle for versicle, Encyclopedia of theology and philosophy - 3º volume pg. 4471-4477.
RIDDERBOS, J. Isaiah - introduction and commentary, 2o ed. Series Biblical Culture. São Paulo: Religious society Editions New Life and Religious Association Christian World, 1990.