of Western psychology
of the Ancients' writings would have been lost had it not been for the efforts
of the Christian, Jewish and Persian translators in the House of Wisdom, the
House of Knowledge, and other such institutions, whose glosses and commentaries
were later translated into Latin in the 2th century. However, it is not clear
how these sources first came to be used during the Renaissance, and their
influence on what would later emerge as the discipline of psychology is a topic
of scholarly debate.
and early usage of word
first use of the term "psychology" is often attributed to the German
scholastic philosopher Rudolf Göckel (1547–1628, often known under the Latin
form Rudolph Goclenius), who published the Psychologia hoc est de hominis
perfectione, anima, ortu in Marburg in 1590. However, the term seems to
have been used more than six decades earlier by the Croatian humanist Marko
Marulić (1450–1524) in the title of his Latin treatise, Psichiologia de
ratione animae humanae. Although the treatise itself has not been
preserved, its title appears in a list of Marulic's works compiled by his
younger contemporary, Franjo Bozicevic-Natalis in his "Vita Marci Maruli
Spalatensis" (Krstić, 1964). This, of course, may well not have been the
very first usage, but it is the earliest documented use at present.
term did not come into popular usage until the German idealist philosopher, Christian
Wolff (1679–1754) used it in his Psychologia empirica and Psychologia
rationalis (1732–1734). This distinction between empirical and rational
psychology was picked up in Denis Diderot's (1713–1780) Encyclopedie
(1751–1784) and was popularized in France by Maine de Biran (1766–1824). In
England, the term "psychology" overtook "mental philosophy"
in the middle of the 19th century, especially in the work of William Hamilton
(1788–1856) (see Danziger, 1997, chap. 3).