Although one can not accurately determine the exact moment that began a period style, it is customary noted as the beginning of Romanticism in Brazil the publication of the book Poetic Sighs and Regrets, Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães, 1836. Author considered one of the "sacred monsters" of the Brazilian literature of the nineteenth century, in the light of modern criticism his work proves to be secondary, especially if faced with the authors who follow him, drawing only on its historic significance, which was him our first poet to publish a work conscientiously romantic.
Key highlights of these characters is the fact that it is appropriate to the soul of the people because we came up just in time, and has adapted to our way of being both from the standpoint of lyric, as the point of view advocated in nationalism. Aware of this, still conscious of its mission to guide the people, the romantic bother to give the Brazilians a symbol of the country and race, about which he would join.
If, on the one hand, there is no denying the importance of Indianism at the time, mainly as a catalyst of the naive sense of nationalism of the nineteenth century Brazil, on the other hand the modern critical consciousness can not see a romantic element in the Indian false, which has much more European than Brazilian character.
A national search led by our authors advocated the use of local color before, especially in the novels, but also, though to a lesser extent, in poetry.
Despite its looks fake and idealized, romantic Indianism precious legacy left to Brazilian literature, the greatest of which is perhaps the fact of having been constituted in the element from which it was a really long quest for national spirit, which culminated in the backcountry Euclides da Cunha, in Jeca Tatu Monteiro Lobato and Macunaíma Mario de Andrade.
Especially in the field of poetry, Romanticism in Brazil did not fail to emulate the bohemian individualism and are typical of European Romanticism, that here was clothed in a marked pessimism - and melancholy, mostly represented by what is termed "disease of the century" and that has its greatest expression in the poetry of Alvares de Azevedo, although it is not exempt any of our romantic poets. Let me say in passing that the presence of nature in literary work, although exacerbated by Romanticism, does not constitute a hallmark of this style. reminiscences disappear neoclassical Indianism emerging as an expression of Brazilian nationalism. Poetry subjective, with a predominance of doubt, disillusionment, melancholy, barely inside the line of the century. " Affirmation of prose fiction, with novels and Macedo de Alencar; appearance of the historical novel. Abolitionism and nationalism linked to the Paraguayan War. Poetry, therefore, was snatched, with daring metaphors and eloquent language, characteristics of condoreiro.
Generally, it is customary to divide the Romantisno in Brazil in four groups:
1. ° group: Domingos José Gonçalves. Magalhães, Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Teixeira de Souza Martins Pena, Joaquim Norberto de Sousa e Silva, and others. It is the group that begins'' Romanticism in Brazil, with the publication of romantic manifesto in Niteroi, Revista Brasiliense, published in Paris in 1836. In the work of the authors in this group are noted, along with characteristics of the school that emerges, reminiscent neoclassical. His favorite subjects are religiously based, nationalist, and have a strong influence of British and French authors. It starts to prose fiction and drama begins to be cultivated.
2. ° group: Joaquim Manuel de Macedo, Gonçalves Dias, Bernardo Guimarães, José de Alencar and others. Reminiscences disappear neoclassical Indianism emerging as an expression of Brazilian nationalism.
3. ° group: Laurindo Rabelo, Alvares de Azevedo, Junqueira Freire, Casimiro de Abreu Fagundes Varela and others. Poetry subjective, with a predominance of doubt, disillusionment, melancholy, barely inside the line of the century. "Affirmation of prose fiction, with novels and Macedo de Alencar; appearance of the historical novel.
4. ° group: Lurs Delfino, Tobias Barreto, Castro Alves and others. Liberal and social concern that forwards poetry for Realism. Abolitionism and nationalism linked to the Paraguayan War. Poetry enraptured with daring metaphors, and eloquent language, characteristics of condoreiro.